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Host molecular factors and viral genotypes in the mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in sub-Saharan Africa

Linda Chapdeleine M. Mouafo, Béatrice Dambaya, Nicole N. Ngoufack, Céline N. Nkenfou
  • Linda Chapdeleine M. Mouafo
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dschang; Systems Biology Laboratory, Chantal BIYA International Reference Centre for Research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management, Yaoundé, Cameroon
  • Béatrice Dambaya
    Systems Biology Laboratory, Chantal BIYA International Reference Centre for Research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management, Yaoundé; Department of Animal Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon
  • Nicole N. Ngoufack
    Systems Biology Laboratory, Chantal BIYA International Reference Centre for Research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management, Yaoundé; Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon
  • Céline N. Nkenfou
    Systems Biology Laboratory, Chantal BIYA International Reference Centre for Research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management, Yaoundé; Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon | nkenfou@yahoo.com

Abstract

Maternal viral load and immune status, timing and route of delivery, viral subtype, and host genetics are known to influence the transmission, acquisition and disease progression of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. This review summarizes the findings from published works on host molecular factors and virus genotypes affecting mother to child transmission (MTCT) in Africa and identifies the gaps that need to be addressed in future research. Articles in PubMed, Google and AIDSearch and relevant conference abstracts publications were searched. Accessible articles on host factors and viral genetics impacting the MTCT of HIV, done on African populations till 2015 were downloaded. Forty-six articles were found and accessed; 70% described host genes impacting the transmission. The most studied gene was the CCR5 promoter, followed by the CCR2-64I found to reduce MTCT; then SDF1-3’A shown to have no effect on MTCT and others like the DC-SIGNR, CD4, CCL3 and IP- 10. The HLA class I was most studied and was generally linked to the protective effect on MTCT. Breast milk constituents were associated to protection against MTCT. However, existing studies in Sub Saharan Africa were done just in few countries and some done without control groups. Contradictory results obtained may be due to different genetic background, type of controls, different socio-cultural and economic environment and population size. More studies are thus needed to better understand the mechanism of transmission or prevention.

Keywords

HIV-1; mother to child transmission; Sub Saharan Africa; host factors; viral genetics

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Submitted: 2016-08-19 20:20:12
Published: 2017-07-03 14:02:37
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Copyright (c) 2017 Linda Chapdeleine M. Mouafo, Béatrice Dambaya, Nicole N. Ngoufack, Céline N. Nkenfou

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