Journal of Public Health in Africa 2018-05-20T19:16:56+02:00 Emanuela Fusinato Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Journal of Public Health in Africa</strong> <em>(JPHiA)</em> is a peer-reviewed, electronic journal that focuses on health issues in the African continent.<br><br>The journal editors seek high quality original articles on public health related issues, reviews, comments and more. The aim of the journal is to move public health discourse from the background to the forefront. The success of Africa’s struggle against disease depends on public health approaches.</p> Multi-stakeholder perspectives on access, availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in Lagos, Nigeria: A mixed-methods study 2018-05-20T19:16:49+02:00 Aduragbemi Banke-Thomas Kikelomo Wright Olatunji Sonoiki Onaedo Ilozumba Babatunde Ajayi Olawunmi Okikiolu Oluwarotimi Akinola Globally, Nigeria is the second most unsafe country to be pregnant, with Lagos, its economic nerve center having disproportionately higher maternal deaths than the national average. Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is effective in reducing pregnancyrelated morbidities and mortalities. This mixed-methods study quantitatively assessed women’s satisfaction with EmOC received and qualitatively engaged multiple key stakeholders to better understand issues around EmOC access, availability and utilization in Lagos. Qualitative interviews revealed that regarding access, while government opined that EmOC facilities have been strategically built across Lagos, women flagged issues with difficulty in access, compounded by perceived high EmOC cost. For availability, though health workers were judged competent, they appeared insufficient, overworked and felt poorly remunerated. Infrastructure was considered inadequate and paucity of blood and blood products remained commonplace. Although pregnant women positively rated the clinical aspects of care, as confirmed by the survey, satisfaction gaps remained in the areas of service delivery, care organization and responsiveness. These areas of discordance offer insight to opportunities for improvements, which would ensure that every woman can access and use quality EmOC that is sufficiently available. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Educational intervention on knowledge of cervical cancer and uptake of Pap smear test among market women in Niger State, Nigeria 2018-05-20T19:16:55+02:00 Godwin Jiya Gana Mansur O. Oche Jessica Timane Ango Aminu Umar Kaoje Kehinde Joseph Awosan Ismail A. Raji Cervical cancer is the most common female genital tract carcinoma worldwide. It is increasingly becoming the leading carcinoma seen among women in the developing world. The aim of our study was to showcase the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge of cervical cancer and subsequently the uptake of Pap smear test amongst market women in Niger state, Nigeria. The state has a rich network of markets in all the local government areas because of the fishing activities, bountiful agricultural produce yearly and its situation to the North of the national capital, Abuja. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two groups with pre and post intervention data collection. Sample size was determined based on a previous similar study done in Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used for recruiting the study participants. SPSS statistical software was used for data entry, editing and analysis. Respondents’ knowledge of cervical cancer were comparable at pre-intervention but were statistically significantly better (P&lt;0.0001) at post-intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group for every variable measured. However, there was only a (Fisher’s exact, P=0.621) compared to the control group. This study showed an increase in knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear test however the uptake of Pap smear test remained low even after intervention. This underscores the need for sustained intervention programs to eventually translate knowledge acquired to habitual practice. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of mother related factors on perinatal outcomes-a study of mothers seeking antenatal care at public and non-public health facilities in Kisii County, Kenya 2018-05-20T19:16:52+02:00 Micah Matiang’i Simon Karanja Peter Wanzala Kenneth Ngure Albino Luciani The study sought to determine clientlevel and facility-level factors that affect perinatal outcomes among women attending comparable public (government owned) and non-public health facilities (non-government owned) in Kisii County-Kenya in the context of free maternity care. A total of 365 pregnant mothers recruited in 4 health facilities during their ANC visit and followed up to 2 weeks post-delivery but only 287 attended all follow-up visits. Study subjects were recruited proportionate to number of deliveries each of the facilities had conducted in the preceding 6 months. The dependent variable was perinatal outcome; independent variables were demographic and clinical factors. Analysis was done using χ2, logistic regression, paired t and McNemar’s tests. Maternal BMI and a mother’s parity were statistically correlated with perinatal outcome (χ2= 8.900, d.f =3, P=0.031 and (χ2= 13.232, d.f =4, P=0.039) respectively. Mothers with 1 parity were 4.5 times more likely to have normal perinatal outcomes (OR =4.5, 95% CI 2.25-14.29, P=0.012). There was a significant relationship between a mother’s knowledge of pregnancy-related issues and the baby’s weight (t=-67.8 d.f. 213 P&lt;0.001). Mothers’ knowledge on pregnancy issues and spousal involvement influences perinatal outcomes. Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) of a mother does not have a direct influence on the outcome of a pregnancy. There is need to focus on maternal factors that affect perinatal outcomes besides free maternity care. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Caesarean section in a primary health facility in Ghana: Clinical indications and feto-maternal outcomes 2018-05-20T19:16:51+02:00 James Prah Andreas Kudom Alex Afrifa Mohammed Abdulai Ignatius Sirikyi Emmanuel Abu There is great concern about the increasing rise in the rate of caesarean section in both developed and developing countries. This study was to ascertain the prevalence and compare outcomes of elective and emergency caesarean sections among women who deliver at the University of Cape Coast Hospital, Ghana. This retrospective study reviewed records of 645 women who delivered through caesarean sections during the period of January 2014 and December 2015. The prevalence of caesarean section was 26.9%. There was a significantly higher rate of adverse fetal outcomes (P=0.016) among babies born through emergency caesarean section. There were 12 (1.9%) women who had caesarean section done based on maternal request. The caesarean section rate found in this study was high. The lack of availability of technology for diagnosing fetal distress found in this study could possibly lead to over diagnosis of fetal distress. Thus availability of such diagnostic technology could reduce the high caesarean section rate. The high numbers of women requesting caesarean section without medical indication should be investigated and the motivation factors identified so as to curb the practice. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Perceptions and practice of health care workers regarding hepatitis B vaccination, Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire, 2016 2018-05-20T19:16:50+02:00 Damus Kouassi Odile Angbo-Effi Lepri Aka M’Bégnan Coulibaly Sory Soumahoro Gnissan Yao Nagho Soro Barriers to immunization are seen in both the general population and the health care workforce. We conducted this study to determine the perception of health workers on vaccination and the immunization of their patients. This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was carried out among the medical staff in Bouaké, from 10 January to 07 March 2016. The data collected from the interviews were analyzed using Epi info 2000 software and SPSS 17.0. The Chi-2 test and logistic regression were performed and the significance threshold of the tests was 5%. The vaccination status of the 291 health care workers (HCWs) for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) was statistically related to their participation in the course in vaccination during their training (ORa = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.04-2.75 P&lt;0.05) and the systematic verification of the vaccination status of the patient was statistically related to the vaccination status of the HCW (ORa = 4.33, 95% CI: 2.97-8.18, P&lt;0.05). Promoting the vaccination among the population should be dependent on the promotion among HCWs. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Negative peri-donation events among whole blood donors in a blood bank in Ibadan, Nigeria 2018-05-20T19:16:49+02:00 Foluke A. Fasola The existence and sustenance of the blood bank depends on blood donors. It is imperative that the donation experience is satisfactory for the donors. Therefore this study was carried out to determine the frequency of undesirable events experienced by the blood donor as part of donor haemovigilance. This was a retrospective descriptive study of the events that occurred amongst the blood donors of the blood bank of a tertiary institution. The blood donor incident book was reviewed for the period of six months. Negative undesirable events occurred in 2% of the donor populations, of which 45.8% could not complete the blood donation process while only 16.7% completed the blood donation process. Mild vasovagal attack occurred in 0.2% of the donor population. Undisclosed deferrable risk factors/ behaviours were identified by the phlebotomist in the bleeding room which made donors unfit for donation even though they had passed the donor screening criteria. This accounted for 20.8% of those with negative experience. Guidelines are required to identify donors that are not likely to complete donation to avoid wastage of time, blood, resources and reduce undesirable experiences. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone 2018-05-20T19:16:47+02:00 Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa Gianluca Russo Raoul Emeric Guetiya Wadoum Emmanuel Iwerima Vincent Batwala Marta Giovanetti Antonella Minutolo Patrick Turay Thomas B. Turay Brima Kargbo Massimo Amicosante Mattei Maurizio Carla Montesano Ebola Study Group A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire) responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Self-ear cleaning practices and the associated risk of ear injuries and ear-related symptoms in a group of university students 2018-05-20T19:16:56+02:00 Nasim Banu Khan Sivashnee Thaver Samantha Marlene Govender Self-ear cleaning is the insertion of objects into the ear canal to clean it, a widespread practice that has the potential to compromise its integrity as a natural, selfcleansing mechanism, and a risk factor for possible injuries. The practice is common among young adults and highest in university than any other graduates. This study aimed to determine the self-ear cleaning practices and associated risk of injury and related symptoms in undergraduate students at KwaZulu-Natal University. The descriptive survey utilized a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 206 participants that responded, 98% engaged in self-ear cleaning, with 75% indicating that it was beneficial. The commonest method (79.6%) being the use of cotton buds, with an associated injury rate of 2.4%. There was no statistically significant associations between those who used or did not use cotton buds and the symptoms experienced. The complications indicate that self-ear cleaning does pose a risk for injury, necessitating more community information and education. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Health hazards related to Soba sewage treatment plant, Sudan 2018-05-20T19:16:54+02:00 Rasha Osman Abdelwahab Abdelmoneim Ranien Mohamed El Mortada Mahi Eldin Mahdi Rawia Moawia Elamin Elahmer Rogaya Adel Derar Elansary Safaa Elsafi Widaa Mohamed Said Hashim Ahmed Abdelgader Sakina Salah Abbasher Ahmed Sally Mohamed Alfatih Abdalrhman The aim of this study was to determine the health hazards acquired by the residents nearby Soba sewage treatment plant. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Soba locality, Khartoum, Sudan. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was assigned to 462 residents of the area living in four geographically distributed squares around the sewage plant. The data was analyzed in SPSS; Cronbach’s alpha reliability scale of measurement was used to check the internal validity of six variables related to the quality of life. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the health hazards and the quality of life. Among the 462 residents, difficulty in breathing (37.9%) and nausea (37.2) were the principal health hazards. Moreover, the residents had a satisfactory level of awareness (88.7%) about the health hazards. The utmost impact on the quality of life was psychological (97.2%). It was statistically correlated with the reported factors, which impacted the quality of life in the district as revealed by the Cronbach’s alpha reliability test with absenteeism (P=0.026), disability (P=0.014), socialization (P=0.032) and death (P=0.016). A logistic regression analysis revealed chemical hazards had a statistically significant association (P&lt;0.05) with quality of life of the residents of Soba district. The study strongly entails the fact that sewage treatment plants crave exceptional consideration from the concerned responsible authorities, together with the fact that the evolved health threats should be confronted with immense responsibility as soon as possible. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A brief review on features of falciparum malaria during pregnancy 2018-05-20T19:16:54+02:00 Alexandre Manirakiza Eugène Serdouma Richard Norbert Ngbalé Sandrine Moussa Samuel Gondjé Rock Mbetid Degana Gislain Géraud Banthas Bata Jean Methode Moyen Jean Delmont Gérard Grésenguet Abdoulaye Sepou Malaria in pregnancy is a serious public health problem in tropical areas. Frequently, the placenta is infected by accumulation of <em>Plasmodium</em> <em>falciparum</em>-infected erythrocytes in the intervillous space. Falciparum malaria acts during pregnancy by a range of mechanisms, and chronic or repeated infection and co-infections have insidious effects. The susceptibility of pregnant women to malaria is due to both immunological and humoral changes. Until a malaria vaccine becomes available, the deleterious effects of malaria in pregnancy can be avoided by protection against infection and prompt treatment with safe, effective antimalarial agents; however, concurrent infections such as with HIV and helminths during pregnancy are jeopardizing malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. 2017-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##