Journal of Public Health in Africa 2019-01-20T23:33:25+01:00 Emanuela Fusinato Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Journal of Public Health in Africa</strong>&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed, academic journal that focuses on health issues in the African continent.<br>The journal editors seek high quality original articles on public health related issues, reviews, comments and more. The aim of the journal is to move public health discourse from the background to the forefront. The success of Africa’s struggle against disease depends on public health approaches.</p> Mass media awareness campaign and the prevention of the spread of Lassa Fever in the rural communities of Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Impact evaluation 2019-01-20T23:33:17+01:00 Joseph O. Wogu <p>This paper investigates the impact of media Campaign on the prevention and spread of Lassa fever in Ebonyi state. 354 respondents were randomly selected from six rural communities in the state as study sample, while structured questionnaires was used for collecting data. SPSS version 20.0 was used to analyse the data. Results of Analysis reveal that the media campaign has rural reach but has little or no impact. The results also reveal that the campaign failed to create appropriate awareness of the disease, its preventive /curative health behaviours. It further reveals that there are no health behaviour modifications among the people because of the campaign. Therefore, this paper recommends the modification of media contents to incorporate the required preventive/curative health behaviours. Secondly, mandatory mass media awareness campaign and jingles in every news hour is recommended.</p> 2018-12-21T13:10:33+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Establishing common leadership practices and their influence on providers and service delivery in selected hospitals in Lusaka province, Zambia 2019-01-20T23:33:18+01:00 Regina M. Mulenga Selestine Nzala Wilbroad Mutale <p>In an evolving health care environment, hospitals need managers with high levels of technical and professional expertise who do not only concentrate on patient care, but also go further to demonstrate good leadership practices. In Zambia, the health sector’s mission is “to provide equity of access to costeffective quality health services as close to the family as possible”. Only competent leadership can drive such an agenda. This study, conducted in selected 1st level Lusaka hospitals aimed at establishing the existing common leadership practices and their influence on healthcare providers and service delivery.The study employed a cross-sectional qualitative research method design, to establish and examine the leadership practices through 10 health system managers and 32 healthcare providers. The data was obtained using in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, participant observation and document review. Data analysis was done by first transcribing audio-recorded interviews and grouping them into data sets (matrixes) where emerging themes were categorized manually. The information obtained assisted in making conclusions and interpretations by providing eminent explanations pointing to specific leadership styles and influence caused on healthcare providers and service delivery. The common leadership practices obtained in this study was the transformational leadership followed by transactional leadership while laissaze-fare was rare type of leadership. This conclusion was arrived at through the practices that were pointing to transformational and transactional leadership as preferred by the leaders and perceived or experienced by providers. These practices were explained as networking, interpersonal relationships, human/material resources management, monitoring and evaluation, dictatorial tendencies and overworking of employees. Furthermore, these practices were seen to have strong influence on healthcare providers through enhanced confidence, motivation for hard work and compromised quality of care. The resultant impact on service delivery was high quality performance as well as poor performance.Leadership styles affect employees’ commitment, motivation, satisfaction, extra effort and efficiency. This in turn has a bearing on performance and directly or indirectly influences patient care and its quality. Health system managers have a significant role in using leadership styles that promote good practice. It can be safely concluded that hospital performance and quality health care delivery services is a product of several factors. The analysis of leadership practices in this study shows two of the factors influencing hospital performance. The first factor is the effectiveness of leaders within the hospital and secondly the dedication, motivation, commitment and performance of employees that will improve health care services.</p> 2018-12-21T13:01:59+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigation of medicinal plants traditionally used as dietary supplements: a review on Moringa oleifera 2019-01-20T23:33:19+01:00 Ivana Matic Arianna Guidi Maurice Kenzo Andrea Galgani Maurizio Mattei <p>Diet and nutrition are important factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health throughout the entire life course. A plant-based diet may be able to prevent and treat chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension, obesity, chronic inflammation and cancer. Phytonutrient rich foods are found in traditional African diet which is mostly vegetarian, and most of these food plants are often used for medicinal purposes. This review focuses on a peculiar plant <em>Moringa oleifera</em>, called the “Miracle Tree”, considered to be one of nature's healthiest and most nutritious foods. Countless studies describe the benefits of <em>Moringa</em> leaves, pods, seeds and flowers. Its well documented role in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is hypothesized here as a result of possible of cross-kingdom regulation by exogenous vegetal microRNAs and synergistic action of plant bioactive components on endogenous human microRNA regulation. The potential health impact of phytocomplexes from African dietary plants within the context of cross-kingdom and endogenous microRNA regulation on health improvement and the overall economic well-being of the continent is estimated to be enormous.</p> 2018-12-21T12:50:40+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of adverse drug reactions in the home management of malaria cases of children under 5 years using artemisinin-based combination therapy in Mfou health district, Center region of Cameroon 2019-01-20T23:33:20+01:00 Louis Essengue Bahina Christian Jean Youmba Rodrigue Biguioh Mabvouna Joëlle Sobngwi <p>health concerns in Cameroon. Its treatment is frequently initiated at home, most often with street drugs. The home management of malaria cases entails the prescription of Artemisinin-based combination (ACTs) as first-line therapy for treatment of uncomplicated&nbsp;malaria after having confirmed the malaria case using rapid diagnostic tests. But induced adverse reactions of this therapy are not well known in Cameroon. Thus, a prospective, observational, cohort study of adverse events associated with ACTs was conducted from January 2013 to November 2013 in the health district of Mfou. Children under 5 years receiving ACTs for malaria treatment at home were enrolled. Suspected ADRs and other clinical events were recorded. Data were managed and analysed using Epi Info version 3.5.3 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences, statistical software version 20. Of the 479 children investigated, 56.8% (n=272/479) were males, the age group 25-59 months (49.5%; n=237/479) was most represented, 27.1% (n=130/479) had experienced one form of ADRs, male children (56.2%; n=73/130) and the age group 25-59 months (50.8%; n=66/130) were most affected. No significant association was found between age, sex and incidence of adverse ACTs reactions. The main experienced ACTs reactions were tiredness (43.1%; n=56/130) followed by lack of appetite (24.6%; n=32/130). The incidence ACTs ARDs was found to be relatively low and tolerable. Home management of malaria cases using ACTs should be encouraged and community members should be trained to improve the recognizing and reporting of adverse effects.</p> 2018-12-21T11:38:43+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design of a typical residence for the elderly in Morocco 2019-01-20T23:33:21+01:00 M. Bouaoudate J. El Harti M. Maamar R. Abouqal <p>The population of Moroccan elders is in full increase; their requirements for quality and quantity of services are becoming increasingly important. On the basis of this, reality and extension of many major innovative projects in Morocco (industrial expansion plan, renewable energy stations, the road infrastructure network, rural electrification, drinking water, accelerated urbanization, globalization...) gain importance. Reflection on the design of a typical residence for the elderly has become an ambitious idea possessing all the chances of its success; it is also worth noting that it is a citizen opportunity to be seized by all political decision-makers for the promotion of health and the improvement of the quality of life of a growing category of the population. The typical residence of the elderly remains not only a place of life but also an environment of therapeutic care and at different levels of autonomy and dependence of our elders.</p> 2018-12-21T11:36:07+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Field application of the Micro Biological Survey method for the assessment of the microbiological safety of different water sources in Tanzania 2019-01-20T23:33:22+01:00 Matteo Gionfriddo Beatrice Nicolosi Lorenza Murgia Alyexandra Arienzo Laura De Gara Giovanni Antonini <p>Access to safe water is stated within human rights as essential for life, as water can be a source of severe enteric infections threatening human health, in particular children from Developing Countries. Along with reference methods, need is pressing for alternative methods to flank reference ones to improve water safety on-site monitoring and in the absence of scientific facilities or even electricity supply. The Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method has already been successfully applied to water safety assessment in Developing Countries. A total of 18 water samples were collected from different sources (rivers, dug wells, tap water) within the Rukwa Region, Tanzania, and underwent analysis for Total Coliforms following the MBS method. Globally, rivers showed more frequently contamination, followed by dug wells, tap water and tanks. Results demonstrate the need for continuous monitoring of water sources, even in difficult frameworks lacking electric supply, to help improve control over water quality, possibly using alternative methods to simplify existing protocols.</p> 2018-12-21T11:34:22+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## APOBEC3G expression and HIV-1 infection in Burkina Faso 2019-01-20T23:33:22+01:00 Tegwinde Rebeca Compaore Serge Theophile Soubeiga Abdoul Karim Ouattara Damehan Tchelougou Cyrille Bisseye Didier Romuald Bakouan Issaka Compaore Augustine Dembele Albert Theophane Yonli Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah Wendkuuni Florencia Djigma Jacques Simpore <p>APOBEC3G is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 replication, and act by deaminating cytidines in uracil on the negative strand of the viral cDNA. In this case-control study, APOBEC3G expression in subjects’ naïve to HAART infected by HIV-1 and the effect of APOBEC3G polymorphism on its expression were evaluated. The results show that the HIV-1 infected carriers of the G minor alleles of the variant rs8177832 had a higher expression of APOBEC3G mRNA than the controls carriers of the G minor allele. APOBEC3G polymorphisms could play an important role in the modulation of the HIV-1 dissemination.</p> 2018-12-21T11:33:05+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus in Burkina Faso: Screening, vaccination and evaluation of post-vaccination antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen in newborns 2019-01-20T23:33:23+01:00 Edwige T. Yelemkoure Albert T. Yonli Carla Montesano Abdoul Karim Ouattara Birama Diarra Théodora M. Zohoncon Christelle W.M. Nadembega Paul Ouedraogo Charles Sombié Serge Theophile Soubeiga Issoufou Tao Adama Gansane Massimo Amicosante Florencia Djigma Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah Virginio Pietra Jacques Simpore Vittorio Colizzi <p>The low rate of screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pregnant women is a highrisk factor for its vertical transmission. The objectives of this study were: i) to screen pregnant women for HBV infection; ii) vaccinate all children from birth against HBV regardless their mother HBV status; and iii) evaluate after 7 months of birth the level of their AbHBs among babies who received&nbsp;HBV vaccine at birth. Serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, HBeAg, AbHBs, AbHBe, and AbHBc) were determined on venous blood samples from 237 pregnant women and their children using the Abon Biopharm Kit. One hundred and two (102) children received the three doses of the EUVAX B® vaccine respectively at birth, two months and four months of life. Seven months after delivery, venous blood samples were collected from mothers and their children. Antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (AbHBs) were measured in vaccinated children using the ELISA Kit <em>AbHBs Quantitative EIA</em>. DNA extraction was performed on samples from HBV-seropositive mothers and their children using the <em>Ribo Virus (HBV Real-TM Qual)</em> Kit and for Real Time PCR, the <em>HBV Real-TM Qual</em> Kit was used. Serological diagnosis in pregnant women revealed 22 (9.28%) hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive samples of which 21 were positive for viral DNA by real-time PCR. Among the 22 HBsAg+ women, five (05) transmitted the virus to their children with a vertical transmission rate of 22.73%. A transmission rate of 23.81% (5/21) was found with the PCR method. Analysis of AbHBs levels revealed that 98.31% of the children had an average concentration of 218.07 ± 74.66 IU/L, which is well above the minimum threshold for protection (11 IU/L). This study has confirmed that vertical transmission of HBV is a reality in Burkina Faso and that vaccination at birth would significantly reduce this transmission.</p> 2018-12-21T11:31:56+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Global burden of diseases attributable to air pollution 2019-01-20T23:33:24+01:00 Samuel Soledayo Babatola <p>Air pollution has remained a major issue of concern over the years with serious toxicological effects on human health. This paper evaluates the comparison of estimates and describes the global burden of diseases related to air pollution in the regions of WHO from 1990 to 2015. The study uses existing data from IHME on global burden of diseases (Mortality and Disability Adjusted Life Years) related to air pollution such as Trachea, Bronchus and Lung cancer, COPD, Ischemic heart disease and Stroke. This study shows that air pollution is one of the major environmental risk factors for the global burden of disease in 1990-2015 and has remained relatively stable for the past 25 years. By region, the largest burden of disease related to air pollution is found in Western Pacific and South-East Asia, reflecting the heavy industry and air pollution hotspots within the developing nations of these regions. Moreover, the rates of Disability Adjusted Life Years increased because of increase in pollution, especially in South-East Asia region, African region, and Eastern Mediterranean region where populations are both growing and ageing.</p> 2018-12-21T11:30:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A situational analysis of eye care services in Swaziland 2019-01-20T23:33:25+01:00 Velibanti Nhlanhla Sukati Vannesa Raquel Moodley Khathutshelo Percy Mashige <p>Compared to other African countries, Swaziland performs the worst in terms of providing eye health care services. A priority goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to alleviate childhood blindness, particularly in low-income countries such as Swaziland, where many people live in poverty, which is a contributor to poor health outcomes. A mixed method approach that entailed a document review, key informant interviews and clinical facility assessment questionnaires was used. Hospitals and mission clinics offering ophthalmic services were identified through the website of the Ministry of Health and verified during key informant interviews. A saturated sampling procedure was applied due to the few facilities that offer eye care services. Six framework components from the WHO for analysing health systems were utilised in an eye health care service context: leadership and governance, eye health services, eye health workforce, eye health financing systems, eye health medical supplies and technologies, and eye health information systems. Poor management, lack of accountability, poor monitoring and evaluation mechanisms, weak coordination and ineffective private-public sector regulations were identified as factors that lead to poor eye care in the country. The optometrists indicated that refractive services are the most rendered ophthalmic services. The exodus of healthcare practitioners has contributed to the downfall of the public health sector in the country. Five government eye care facilities, 3 government hospitals, 1 non-governmental organization (NGO) and a church mission clinic were included in this analysis. The eye services distribution favors the more affluent areas, particularly the more urban Hhohho Region, which is also where most of the eye health professionals are located. No campaigns have been conducted to prevent childhood blinding diseases or create awareness about getting children’s eyes tested for refractive correction. The burden of eye diseases among children in Swaziland remains unknown. More eye health care personnel and equipped facilities are needed throughout the country, and the eye health care program needs to be adopted.</p> 2018-12-21T10:03:27+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##