Self-medication against COVID-19 in health workers in Conakry, Guinea
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
Data regarding the prevalence and consequences of self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa are very limited. The study aimed to explore the frequency and risk factors of self-medication against COVID-19 by health personnel in this study. This cross-sectional study took place in June 2021, in Conakry, in the all three national hospitals and the six community medical centers, and five primary health centers. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed to identify factors associated with self-medication. A total of 975 health workers with a median age of 31 (IQR: 27-40) years, with 504 (51.7%) women were included. The majority were clinicians: physicians (33.1%) or nurses (33.1%). Of all, 46.2% reported having had at least one COVID-19 symptom during the 12 months preceding the survey. The proportion of self-medication was 15.3% among national hospital staff, 12.20% in municipality medical centers and 22.6% in primary health centers (p=0.06). More than two-thirds (68.7%) who selfmedicated did not have a test for SARSCoV- 2 infection. They took antibiotics including azithromycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin (42.2%), acetaminophen (37.4%), vitamin C (27.9%), hydroxychloroquine (23.8%) and medicinal plants (13.6%). The median duration of self-medication was 4 days. Fatigue or asthenia, sore throat, loss of smell and sore throat of a close person were independently associated with selfmedication. Health care workers largely practiced self-medication during the Covid pandemic and without diagnostic testing. The results suggest the need for training and sensitization of medical personnel to avoid the consequences of the molecules used, including hepatotoxicity and antibiotic resistance.
Palayew A, Norgaard O, Safreed-Harmon K, et al. Pandemic publishing poses a new COVID-19 challenge. Nat Hum Behav 2020;4:666–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0911-0
Weekly epidemiological update on COVID-19 - 3 August 2021 n.d. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weekly-epidemiological-update-on-covid-19---3-august-2021 (accessed August 5, 2021).
Rajkumar RP. COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian J Psychiatry 2020;52:102066. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102066
Wegbom AI, Edet CK, Raimi O, et al. Self-Medication Practices and Associated Factors in the Prevention and/or Treatment of COVID-19 Virus: A Population-Based Survey in Nigeria. Front Public Health 2021;9:606801. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.606801
Gras M, Champel V, Masmoudi K, Liabeuf S. Self-medication practices and their characteristics among French university students. Therapie 2020;75:419–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.therap.2020.02.019
Gras M, Gras-Champel V, Moragny J, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the reporting of adverse drug reactions associated with self-medication. Ann Pharm Fr 2021;79:522-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharma.2021.02.003
Onchonga D, Omwoyo J, Nyamamba D. Assessing the prevalence of self-medication among healthcare workers before and during the 2019 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic in Kenya. Saudi Pharm J SPJ 2020;28:1149–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2020.08.003
Sadio AJ, Gbeasor-Komlanvi FA, Konu RY, Bakoubayi AW, Tchankoni MK, Bitty-Anderson AM, et al. Assessment of self-medication practices in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak in Togo. BMC Public Health 2021;21:58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-10145-1
Jaspard M, Sow MS, Juchet S, et al. Clinical presentation, outcomes and factors associated with mortality: A prospective study from three COVID-19 referral care centres in West Africa. Int J Infect Dis 2021;108:45–52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.05.024
Gautret P, Lagier J-C, Parola P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020;56:105949. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
Khezri MR, Zolbanin NM, Ghasemnejad-berenji M, Jafari R. Azithromycin: Immunomodulatory and antiviral properties for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Eur J Pharmacol 2021;905:174191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174191
Doan T, Worden L, Hinterwirth A, et al. Selection of Macrolide and Non-Macrolide Resistance with Mass Azithromycin Distribution: A Community-Randomized Trial. N Engl J Med 2020;383:1941–50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002606
Toy T, Pak GD, Duc TP, et al. Multicountry Distribution and Characterization of Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase–associated Gram-negative Bacteria From Bloodstream Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Infect Dis 2019;69:S449–58.
Talassone Bangoura S, Toure A, Sidibé S, et al. Frequency and Determinants of Prescribing Antibiotics for Internal Medicine at Donka National Hospital (Guinea). Cent Afr J Public Health 2020;6:1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.cajph.20200601.11
Sow M, Camara A, Fortes Deguenonvo L, et al. Evaluation of the Prescription of Antibiotics in the Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Adults at the University Hospital of Conakry in Guinea n.d.
Lucien MAB, Canarie MF, Kilgore PE, et al. Antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance in the COVID-19 era: Perspective from resource-limited settings. Int J Infect Dis 2021;104:250–4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.087
Faqihi AHMA, Sayed SF. Self-medication practice with analgesics (NSAIDs and acetaminophen), and antibiotics among nursing undergraduates in University College Farasan Campus, Jazan University, KSA. Ann Pharm Fr 2021;79:275-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharma.2020.10.012
Boozari M, Hosseinzadeh H. Natural products for COVID-19 prevention and treatment regarding to previous coronavirus infections and novel studies. Phytother Res 2021;35:864–76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6873
Copyright (c) 2022 Abdoulaye Toure, Saidouba Cherif Camara, Alioune Camara, Mamoudou Conde, Alexandre Delamou, Ibrahima Camara, Salifou Talassone Bangoura, Alimou Camara, Mamadou Bobo Diallo, Mamadou Bhoye Keita, Kaba Kourouma, Robert Camara, Jean-François Etard, Alpha-Kabinet Keita
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
PAGEPress has chosen to apply the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.