Does <em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam. leaves supplementation have an impact on the weight and bone mass index of people living with HIV that are on antiretroviral therapy? A double-blind randomized control trial


  • Aisha Gambo Discipline of Public Health, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban
  • Nceba Gqaleni Discipline of Traditional Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban



Moringa oleifera Lam., HIV, BMI, antiretroviral therapy


Background. HIV-related weight loss and wasting were the most common malnutrition and AIDS-defining conditions before HAART. HAART has led to more obese PLHIV. HIV-positive patients should eat micro- and macronutrient-rich foods to maintain optimal nutrition. This study examined whether Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf supplementation affects PLHIV receiving ART.
Methods. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted. Two hundred patients with informed consent were randomly assigned to either the Moringa oleifera Lam. (MOG) group or the control group (COG). From baseline to six months of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf supplementation, anthropometric parameters [weight; BMI] of the participants were assessed.
Results. One hundred seventy-seven patients completed the 6-month follow-up (89 MOG versus 88 COG). During the study period, the MOG and COG had similar weights and BMIs (p>0.05). At baseline and six months, most participants in both study groups had a healthy BMI (18.5-24.9). Many participants were overweight; few were underweight (BMI<18.5). MOG and COG BMI differences at baseline and six months were not significant (p> 0.05). All experiments were 95CI.
Conclusions . Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder had no effect on HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy, in accordance with this study.

Download data is not yet available.


Avert. HIV and AIDS in Nigeria. Available at: https://wwwavertorg/professionals/hiv-around-world/sub-saharan-africa/nigeria. 2019. [Accessed 12 January 2022]

Magadi MA. Household and community HIV/AIDS status and child malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from the demographic and health surveys. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73:436-46. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.05.042. DOI:

Mangili A, Murman DH, Zampini AM, Wanke CA. Nutrition and HIV Infection: Review of Weight Loss and Wasting in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy from the Nutrition for Healthy Living Cohort. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42:836–42. DOI:1058-4838/2006/4206-0018$15.00. DOI:

MartõÂn-Cañavate R, Sonego M, Sagrado MJ, Escobar G, Rivas E, Ayala S, et al. Dietary patterns and nutritional status of HIV-infected children and adolescents in El Salvador: A cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE 2018;13(5):1-14 DOI:org/0.1371/journal.pone.0196380 DOI:

Contri PV, Berchielli EM, Tremeschin MH, Negrini BV, Saloma˜o RG, Monteiro JP. Nutritional status and lipid profile of HIV-positive children and adolescents using antiretroviral therapy. Clinics. 2011;66(6):997-1002. DOI:10.590/S807-59322011000600013. DOI:

Koethe JR, Heimburger DC. Nutritional aspects of HIV-associated wasting in sub-Saharan Africa1–4. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:(suppl):1138S–42S. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2010.28608D. DOI:

Sax PE, Erlandson KM, Lake JE, McComsey GA, Orkin C, Esser S, et al. Weight Gain Following Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: Risk Factors in Randomized Comparative Clinical Trials. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(6):1380–9. DOI: 10.093/cid/ciz999. DOI:

Haffner SM. Relationship of Metabolic Risk Factors and Development of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes. Obesity. 2006;14 Supplement 121S-7S. DOI:

Masa R, Chowa G, Nyirenda V. Socioeconomic correlates of dietary diversity and its association with adherence and psychosocial functioning of people living with HIV in rural Zambia. Nutr Health. 2018;24(2 ):93–102. DOI: 10.1177/0260106018761282. DOI:

Farinola LA, Famuyide OO, Awe F, Adio AF, Ewolor AS. Households’ perception, awareness and willingness to pay for Moringa oleifera Lam powder in Oyo State. J Agric Crop Res. 2014;2(6):94-103.

Animashaun JO, Williams FE, Toye AA. Towards Validating Moringa’s Nutraceutical Benefits: An Examination of Consumers’ Perspectives vis-à-vis Health Benefits Efficacy and Willingness to Pay. Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics. 2013;V(2):11-21.

Williams FE, Animashaun JO, Ibrahim H, Toye AA. A preliminary survey on consumption of moringa products for nutraceutical benefits in ilorin, kwara state, nigeria. Agrosearch. 2013;13(1):165-75. DOI: 10.4314/agrosh.v13i1.15. DOI:

Dhakad AK, Ikram M, Sharma S, Khan S, Pandey VV, Singh A. Biological, nutritional, and therapeutic significance of Moringa oleifera Lam. Phytother Res. 2019;33:2870-903 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6475. DOI:

Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH. Moringa oleifera: A Food Plant with Multiple Medicinal Uses. Phytother Res. 2007;21:17-25. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2023. DOI:

Rakotosamimanana VR, Valentin D, Arvisenet G. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagascar? A study combining a survey and a consumer test. Appetite 2015;95:533-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.08.011. DOI:

Thurber MD, Fahey JW. Adoption of Moringa oleifera to combat under-nutrition viewed through the lens of the “Diffusion of Innovations” theory. Ecol Food Nutr. 2009;48(3):212-25. DOI: 10.1080/03670240902794598. DOI:

Pandey A, Pandey RD, Tripathi P, Gupta PP, Haider J, Bhatt S, et al. Moringa Oleifera Lam. (Sahijan) - A Plant with a Plethora of Diverse Therapeutic Benefits: An Updated Retrospection. Med Aromat Plants 2012;1(1):1-8. DOI: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000101. DOI:

Gambo A, Moodley I, Babashani M, Babalola TK, Gqaleni N. A double blind randomised control trial to examine the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder supplementation on the immune status and anthropometric parameters of adult HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(12):e0261935.: DOI:

Gambo, A., Moodley, I., Babashani, M., Babalola, T.K., 2021. Impact of Moringa Oleifera leaves supplementation on quality of life of people living with HIV: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Qual Life Res, DOI:

Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, Lang A-G. Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. . Behav. 2009;41:1149-60. DOI: 10.3758/BRM.41.4.1149. DOI:

Bahadoran Z, Tohidi M, Nazeri P, Mehran M, Azizi F, Mirmiran P. Effect of broccoli sprouts on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012;63(7): 767–71. DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2012.665043. DOI:

Idohou-Dossou N, Diouf A, Gueye AL, Guiro AT, Wade S. Impact of daily consumption of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera) dry leaf powder on iron status of senegalese lactating women. AJFAND. 2011;11 (4):4985-99. DOI:

Tété–Bénissan A, Quashie MIA, Lawson–Evi K, Gnandi K, Kokou K, Gbéassor M. Influence of Moringa oleifera leaves on atherogenic lipids and glycaemia evolution in HIV-infected and uninfected malnourished patients. J Appl Biosci. 2013;62:4610-9. DOI: 10.314/jab.v62i0.86072. DOI:

SANAS. South African National Accreditation System (SANAS). Available at: https://wwwsanascoza/. 2017. [Accessed 12 January 2022]

ASPIRATA. Nutritional Analysis of Moringa oleifera leaves powder. ASPIRATA Food and Beverage Laboratory. Available at: http://aspiratacoza/. 2017. [Accessed 12 January 2022]

FANTA. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA). Nutrition Assessment, Counseling, and Support (NACS): A User’s Guide—Module 2: Nutrition Assessment and Classification. Available at: https://wwwfantaprojectorg/sites/default/files/resources/NACS-Users-Guide-Module2-May2016pdf. 2016;2:1-12. [Accessed 12 January 2022]

Moyo B, Masika PJ, Hugo A, Muchenje V. Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. Afr J Biotechnol. 2011;10(60):12925-33. DOI:

Gopalakrishnan L, Doriya K, Kumar DS. Moringa oleifera: A review on nutritive importance and its medicinal application. Food Sci Hum Well. 2016;5:49-56. DOI:

Tshingani K, Donnen P, Mukumbi H, Duez P, Dramaix-Wilmet M. Impact of Moringa oleifera lam. Leaf powder supplementation versus nutritional counseling on the body mass index and immune response of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: a single-blind randomized control trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(420):1-13. DOI: 0.1186/s12906-017-1920-z. DOI:

Takarinda KC, Mutasa-Apollo T, Madzima B, Nkomo B, Chigumira A, Banda M, et al. Malnutrition status and associated factors among HIV-positive patients enrolled in ART clinics in Zimbabwe. BMC Nutr. 2017;3(15):1-11. DOI: 0.1186/s40795-017-0132-8. DOI:

Khatri S, Amatya A, Shrestha B. Nutritional status and the associated factors among people living with HIV: an evidence from cross-sectional survey in hospital based antiretroviral therapy site in Kathmandu, Nepal. BMC Nutr. 2020;6(22): 1-13. DOI:




How to Cite

Gambo, A., & Gqaleni, N. (2022). Does <em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam. leaves supplementation have an impact on the weight and bone mass index of people living with HIV that are on antiretroviral therapy? A double-blind randomized control trial. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 13(3).



Original Articles