Chemoinformatics approach to design and develop vanillin analogs as COX-1 inhibitor

Published: 16 March 2023
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  • Norhayati Norhayati Master Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • Juni Ekowati Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya; Drug Development Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • Nuzul Wahyuning Diyah Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya; Drug Development Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
  • Bimo Ario Tejo Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti of Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
  • Samar Ahmed Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fayoum University, Fayoum; Egy Herbal Factory, Kom Oshim, Fayoum, Egypt.

Background: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), commonly known as the silent killer, impacted the severity of COVID-19 patients during the pandemic era. Thrombosis or blood clots create the buildup of plaque on the coronary artery walls of the heart, which leads to coronary heart disease. Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) is involved in the production of prostacyclin by systemic arteries; hence, inhibiting the COX-1 enzyme can prevent platelet reactivity mediated by prostacyclin. To obtain good health and well-being, the research of discovery of new drugs for anti-thrombotic still continue.

Objective: This study aims to predict the potential of 17 compounds owned by the vanillin analog to COX-1 receptor using in silico.

Methods: This research employed a molecular docking analysis using Toshiba hardware and AutoDock Tools version 1.5.7, ChemDraw Professional 16.0, Discovery Studio, UCSF Chimera software, SWISSADME and pKCSM, a native ligand from COX- 1 (PDB ID: 1CQE) was validated.

Results: The validation result indicated that the RMSD was <2 Å. The 4-formyl-2-methoxyphenyl benzoate compound had the lowest binding energy in COX-1 inhibition with a value of -7.70 Å. All vanillin derivatives show good intestinal absorption, and the predicted toxicity indicated that they were non-hepatotoxic. All these compounds have the potential to be effective antithrombotic treatments when consumed orally.

Conclusion: In comparison to other vanillin derivative compounds, 4-formyl-2-methoxyphenyl benzoate has the lowest binding energy value; hence, this analog can continue to be synthesized and its potential as an antithrombotic agent might be confirmed by in vivo studies.

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Norhayati, N., Ekowati, J., Diyah, N. W., Tejo, B. A., & Ahmed, S. (2023). Chemoinformatics approach to design and develop vanillin analogs as COX-1 inhibitor. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 14(s1).


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