The activity of candlenut oil in the nanostructured lipid carrier system on hair growth in rats

Published: 16 March 2023
Abstract Views: 379
PDF: 229
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Background: Candlenut oil (Aleurites moluccana L. Willd), which is also called Aleurites moluccana Seed (AMS) oil, is empirically effective as a hair growth agent, it is an unstable substance. Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (NLC) is a delivery system that is proven to increase the effectiveness and stability of the material, and the usage of solid lipid combination: beeswax-oleum cacao can produce good NLC characteristics.

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of NLC_AMS oil with different combination of beeswax-oleum cacao (100:0; 50:50; 25:75; and 0:100) as a hair growth agent, using rats as subjects.

Methods: NLC-AMS oil was made using 20% of total lipid with 5% AMS oil as liquid lipid and 15% solid lipid; combinations of beeswax-oleum cacao were of different ratios (100:0; 50:50; 25:75; and 0:100). NLC was made by High Shear Homogenization (HPH) method. Hair growth activity test carried out on male white rats using the research methods of Yoon (2010).

Results: The addition of oleum cacao as a solid lipid did not affect the pH, but increased the consistency and decreased the particle size of NLC- AMS oil. There was a relationship between the characteristic of NLC and the hair growth activity test: the small particle size and low viscosity had greater hair growth activity.

Conclusion: The usage of solid lipid combination: beeswax-oleum cacao can produce better NLC characteristics and had higher hair growth activity than the formulas that used single lipid.

Soepardiman L, Legiawati L. Hair Abnormalities. Seventh edition of Science of Skin Diseases and Gender. FKUI Issuing Agency, Jakarta 2015.

Satriyo A, Legiawati L, Agustin T, Sugito TL. Anagen effluvium. MDVI. 2011;38:41-48.

Li Y, Han M, Lin P, et al. Hair growth promotion activity and its mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015;2015:1-11. DOI:

Krisnawati H, Kallio M, Kanninen M. Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. Ecology, silviculture and productivity. CIFOR, Bogor 2011.

Erawati TM, Asha Denara P, Maharani SA, et al. Widji. Characteristics and Stability of Nanostructured Lipid Carrier (NLC) Aleurites Moluccana Seed Oil (AMS oil) Using Various Combinations of Beeswax and Oleum Cacao. Int J Drug Deliv Technol 2019; 9; 94-97. DOI:

Wulansari EDE, Masruriati DD. Rabbit Hair Growth Test with Celery Extract Cream, AMS Oil Cream, Celery Extract Cream - AMS Oil and Physical Testing of Preparations. MPI 2013;2013:186-192.

Prasojo, Mulyani, Mufrod. Effect Of Storage Length On Physical And Chemical Stability Of Hair Growth Lotion Containing Candlenut Extract (Aleurites Moluccana L. Willd.). Majalah Obat Tradisional 2012; 17:1–7.

Martín C, Andres M, Giraldo M, Eugenio C. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperm, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba. Biomass Bioenergy 2010;34:533-538. DOI:

Jaffar.The effectiveness of coconut oil mixed with herbs to promote hair growth. Iran J Electr Electron Eng 2014;1:1-4.

Arlene A. Extraction of AMS Oil by Soxhlet Method and Characterization of AMS Oil. Chem Eng J 2013; 2:6–10.

Pasaribu VD, Rohanah, A. Ichwan N. Designing Threaded Oil Forging Tools. myJAFE 2014;2:145-150.

Montenegro L. Lipid-Based Nanoparticles as Carriers for Dermal Delivery of Antioxidants. Curr Drug Metab 2017;18:469-480 DOI:

Puri A, Loomis K, Smith B, et al. Lipid-based nanoparticles as pharmaceutical drug carriers: from concepts to clinics. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carr Syst 2009;26:523-580. DOI:

Rosen J, Landriscina A, Friedman A. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care. Cosmetics 2015; 2:211-224. DOI:

Müller RH, Petersen RD, Hommoss A, Pardeike J. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic and dermal products. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 2007;59:522-30. DOI:

Tichota, Silva. Design, characterization, and clinical evaluation of argan oil nanostructured lipid carriers to improve skin hydration. Int J Nanomedicine 2014;9:3855-64. DOI:

Kaur S, Nautiyal U, Singh R, Singh S. Nanostructure Lipid Carrier (NLC): the new generation of lipid nanoparticles. Asian PAC. J. Health Sci 2015; 2:76-93. DOI:

Krasodomska O, Paolicelli P, Cesa S, et al. Protection and viability of fruit seeds oils by nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) nanosuspensions. J. Colloid Interface Sci 2016;479:25-33. DOI:

Rosita N, Setyawan D, Soeratri W, Mrtodihardjo S. Physical Characterization Of Beeswax And Glyceryl Monostearate Binary System To Predict Characteristics Of Solid Lipid Nanoparticle (SLN ) Loaded. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:939-45.

Indiwinani. White Rats Hair Growth Activity, Physical Stability and Safety Test of Hibiscus Leaves Extract Gel (Hibiscus tiliaceus Linn). Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta; 2007.

Yoon JI, Al-Reza SM, Kang SC. Hair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oil. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:1350-4. DOI:

Avramov I. Relationship between Diffusion, Self-Diffusion and Viscosity. J Non-Cryst Solids 2009;355:745-7. DOI:

Erawati, T. M., Rosita, N., & Rachmania, I. (2023). The activity of candlenut oil in the nanostructured lipid carrier system on hair growth in rats. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 14(s1).


Download data is not yet available.