We must revise the current logic to protect our humanity from infectious disease outbreaks


  • Mosoka P. Fallah Africa Center for Disease Control and Prevention




Dear Editor,
By September 2014, the once isolated Ebola had traveled on major highways to the densely populated cities of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. As have been demonstrated in previous epidemics, the world went from panic to neglect of Ebola, so that by November 2022, similar to Ebola Zaire in West Africa, Ebola Sudan made its way from the rural Mabande District to the densely populated city of Kampala. And in each of these instances, as we are now seeing in Equatorial Guinea with Marburg Virus outbreak, our World was unprepared with vaccines and therapeutics. [...]

Download data is not yet available.


Vetter, P., Dayer, JA., Schibler, M. et al. The 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa: Hands On. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 5, 17 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-016-0112-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-016-0112-9

Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals. Uganda says 9 more Ebola cases confirmed in Kampala, urges vigilance, Reuters. October 24, 202211:31 AM GMT+3Updated 9 months ago (

As Uganda's Ebola outbreak intensifies, cases expand in Kampala. Lisa Schnirring | News Editor | CIDRAP News October 24, 2022. Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/ugandas-ebola-outbreak-intensifies-cases-expand-kampala; accessed July 18, 2023)

Another Ebola outbreak, another missed opportunity for preparedness, By Swati GuptaJan. 11, 2023 (https://www.statnews.com/2023/01/11/ebola-outbreak-highlights-candidate-vaccine-stockpile-need/, accessed on July 18, 2023)

WHO Warns of Impending Deadlier Pandemic, Urges Global Preparedness As the WHO warns of an impending deadlier pandemic, the global community must heed this call to action. News Desk. 23 May 2023 (https://www.globalvillagespace.com/who-warns-of-impending-deadlier-pandemic-urges-global-preparedness/, accessed on July 18, 2023)

Hundreds of bodies of covid-19 victims are still in New York’s refrigerated trucks more than a year into the pandemic. By Brittany Shammas. May 9, 2021 at 5:54 p.m. EDT ( https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2021/05/09/coronavirus-bodies-trucks-new-york/, accessed on July 18, 2023)

Coronavirus: Italian army called in as crematorium struggles to cope with deaths. Emily Mee. Live blogger @EmilyMeeSky. Thursday 19 March 2020 17:58, UK (https://news.sky.com/story/coronavirus-italian-army-called-in-to-carry-away-corpses-as-citys-crematorium-is-overwhelmed-11959994, accessed July 18, 2023)

The Atlantic. An Unimaginable Toll. ALAN TAYLOR APRIL 8, 2020 27 PHOTOS IN FOCUS (https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2020/04/coronavirus-unimaginable-toll-photos/609652/, accessed July 18, 2023)

Marion Garaus, Melánia Hudáková,The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourists’ air travel intentions: The role of perceived health risk and trust in the airline,Journal of Air Transport Management,Volume 103,2022,102249,ISSN 0969-6997,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2022.102249. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969699722000692) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2022.102249

Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). (https://fiftrustee.worldbank.org/en/about/unit/dfi/fiftrustee/fund-detail/cepi, accessed July 18, 2023)

By Matt Craven, Adam Sabow, Lieven Van der Veken, and Matt Wilson. Not the last pandemic: Investing now to reimagine public-health systems. May 21, 2021 | Article (https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-sector/our-insights/not-the-last-pandemic-investing-now-to-reimagine-public-health-systems, accessed on July 18, 2023)

Ibrahim SK, Ndwandwe DE, Thomas K, et al. Sudan virus disease outbreak in Uganda: urgent research gaps. BMJ Global Health 2022;7:e010982. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2022-010982 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2022-010982

New Uganda Sudan ebolavirus outbreak means FDA-licensed vaccine for Zaire ebolavirus cannot be used. https://www.idsociety.org/science-speaks-blog/2022/new-uganda-sudan-ebolavirus-outbreak-means-fda-licensed-vaccine-for-zaire-ebolavirus-cannot-be-used/#/+/0/publishedDate_na_dt/desc/Date: Sept 21, 2022. Date accessed: December 18, 2022

Commentary-Africa Needs a New Public Health Order to Tackle Infectious Disease Threats. John N. Nkengasong1,* and Sofonias K. Tessema. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.041 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.041

Ali, S.H., M.P. Fallah, J.M. McCarthy, R. Keil, and C. Connolly (2022) ‘Mobilizing the social infrastructure of informal settlements in infectious disease response – the case of Ebola virus disease in West Africa’. Landscape and Urban Planning. 217 (January). Article number: 104256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.land-urbplan.2021.104256. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2021.104256

Mosoka P Fallah, H Clifford Lane, Elizabeth S Higgs, Stephen B Kennedy, Moses B F Massaquoi, Mark W S Kieh, James D Neaton, Lisa E Hensley, Laura McNay, Wissedi Njoh, Jestina Doe-Anderson. Published:March, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(23)00040-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(23)00040-2

Allen Cheng. Remote village to metropolis: how globalisation spreads infectious diseases. Published: May 28, 2018 9.56pm SAST. (https://theconversation.com/remote-village-to-metropolis-how-globalisation-spreads-infectious-diseases-92216, accessed July 19, 2023)

Mosoka Papa FallahLaura SkripLaura SkripJonathan Enders. Preventing rural to urban spread of Ebola: lessons from Liberia. June 2018The Lancet 392(10144)Follow journal. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31435-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31435-1

Equatorial Guinea confirms eight more Marburg cases. 22 March 2023 (https://www.afro.who.int/countries/equatorial-guinea/news/equatorial-guinea-confirms-eight-more-marburg-cases, accessed on July 19, 2023)

WHO Director-General declares the ongoing monkeypox outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. 23 July 2022 News release (https://www.who.int/europe/news/item/23-07-2022-who-director-general-declares-the-ongoing-monkeypox-outbreak-a-public-health-event-of-international-concern, access on July 19, 2023).




How to Cite

Fallah, M. P. (2023). We must revise the current logic to protect our humanity from infectious disease outbreaks. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 14(9). https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2023.2829



Letters to the Editors